Global warming

C. Lalduhawma
Member Secretary
Mizoram Pollution Control Board (MPCB)

Global warming tih chu khawvel lumna chawhrual lo sang ta sawina a ni mai. Khawvel hmun hrang hrang hi a inang lo a, an lum leh vawh dan a inang hek lo. Hmun pakhatah lum hle mahse hmun dangah a vawt a; chung zawng zawng la khawm chuan khawvel pumpui lumna chawhruala a hma aia a lo lum ta a nih chuan global warming a lo awm ta tihna a ni. Mi thiamte’n an report dan chuan kum 2005 hmalam kum 100 chhunga khawvel pumpui lumna chawhrual chu 0.74 ± 0.18 °C–in a san belh an ti.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)-in an hrilhlawkna thar ber (Climate Model projections)-ah chuan kum zabi 21 chhung hian khawvel lumna chawhrual chu 1.1 to 6.4 °C –in a pun belh ang an ti. Heng hrilhlawkna te hi a chiang fak mawh em em a, a chhan chu tun dihhmun atanga teh loh theih loh a nih vang a ni. Nakinah eng nge lo thleng ang tih hi a hriat theih tak tak si lo a. Eng pawh nise la, thil chiang tak erawh chu khawvel pumpui lumna chawrual hi a sang zel a ni tih hi a ni. Thu thar ve deuh tak chu kum 2008-a ziak paper pakhatah chuan kum 10 chhung chuan khawvel lumna hi a pun belh dawn lo a, a chhan chu sik leh sa inlumlet dan pangngai inherchhuah hun (short-term natural climate cycles) a ni e tih a ni. NASA enkawl Goddard Institute for Space Studies-in a tarlan danin kum 1800 hnu lama khawvel lum ber kum chu 1998 kha a ni a, kum 2005 kha a dawttu a ni. Kum 1998 ai khan hmun zaa thena hmun tlemtein a lum zawk a ni. Kum 1998 lum ber chhan kha chu El-Nino vang niin an sawi.


Engvanga lo lum ta nge?
IPCC chuan kum zabi 20-na laihawl vel atanga khawvel lo lum zual ta an hriat chhuah hi greenhouse effect vanga lo awm a ni e tiin an pawm a, chu chu khawvela pawl hrang hrang leh mi thiam dangte pawhin an pawm dan a ni.

Greenhouse effect chu eng nge ni ta?
Greenhouse chu darthlalang In, a chhunga thlai an chinna hmun a ni a; darthlalang In a nih avangin ni lumna a rawn kal tlang thei a, In chhung a thlen hnuah ni zung chu a inkhawh let a, a then chu darthlalang tawn tlangin van boruakah a inkhawh chhuak a, a then erawh chuan an tawn tlang ve zo lo a, in chhungah chuan a awm ta a ni. Chu chuan in chhung boruak chu a tilum ham ham ta a ni. Kan khawvel lo lum tak dan hi chutiang chiah chu a ni a; greenhouse chung darthlalang aiah khan boruak bawlhhlawh a awm ve ta thung a, ni zung chuan a rawn tawn tlang ngei a; mahse ni zung thenkhat inkhawh let tur chu boruak bawlhhlawh chuan a lo dan tak avangin khawvel chu a tilum ta a ni. Khawvel boruak lumna tizualtu leh thlentu ber chu boruak bawlhhlawh (greenhouse gas) an tihte chu a ni ta a ni.

Greenhouse gas te chu engte nge?
Carbon dioxide: Khawvel lumna thlentu zinga a bulpui leh langsar tak chu Carbon dioxide hi a ni. USA-ah chuan carbon dioxide an tih chhuah zawng zawng zaa 40 zet chu electric siam chhuahna atana fossil fuel an hal atangin a ni a; chung zingah chuan zaa 93 zet chu lungalthei atangin a ni. Zaa 33 vel chu motor atanga lo chhuak a ni thung.

Kum 1996 khan traffic engineer ten an zir chiannaah chuan Los Angeles leh New York khawpuia motor khalhtute chuan traffic jam-a an thut mai mai lai khan kum tin petrol gallon maktaduai 600 zet an khawhral a ni. Chu chu carbon dioxide ton maktaduai 7.5 an tichhuak tihna a nih chu. Mizoramah chuan lo hal leh ram kang atangin carbon dioxide hi a chhuak tam bera rin a ni a; khawpui bikah chuan motor atangin a nih a rinawm. Industry leh a kaihhnawih, carbon dioxide tichhuak tur kan la nei tlem hle. Mihringin carbon dioxide kan tihchhuah piah lamah ramngaw chereu nasa lutuk hian boruakah carbon dioxde a tihtam phah hle a ni. Boruaka carbon dioxide awm zawng zawng zaa 20-25 zet chu ramngaw thiat leh hal darh avanga lo awm a ni. Kum tinin ram ngaw Italy ram tiat vel ang khu kan hloh ziah nia chhut a ni.

Methane:
Carbon dioxide dawta pawi khawihtu lian tak chu Methane hi a ni. Boruaka lumna lo hip bet tur hian Carbon dioxide ai khan a let 20-in a thawk hlawk zawk niin IPCC chuan a tarlang. Van boruakah hian methane hi tun kum 100 chhung a let khat leh a chanve dawn (145%) laiin a pun belh a ni an ti. Methane chu buh kung (buhpawl) atang te, ran thaw leh vawih atang te, fossil fuel siam chhuahna atangte leh hmun hnawng atangtein a lo chhuak tlangpui. Leileta buh hmun, dûm leh tuiin a chim hmuk ang chi atangtein a chhuak tam zual a ni.

Boruaka tuihu:

Van boruaka tuihu awm hi tlanglawn tak leh greenhouse gas zinga chak ber a ni a; boruak hnawng hian khaw lum a tizual nasa hle. Amaherawhchu boruak hnawng (tuihu) lo punna chhan chu greenhouse gas dangte avanga khaw lum lo zual ta vang a ni leh thung si. Greenhouse Gas zawng zawngin an pawm lumna hmun thuma thena hmun hnih zet chu tuihu pawm hi a ni. Lei a lo lum hian boruak a lum a, humidity a sang thin. Boruak hian a lum poh leh tuihu a pai tam thei sawt a, chuvang chuan boruak a hnawng zual ta thin a ni.

Nitrous oxide: Nitrous oxide chu boruak chi khat, rawng nei lo, kang thei lo, thlum rim nam chêk a ni a, laughing gas tia hriat lar a ni. Nitrous Oxide hi ramngaw leh tuifinriatte hian a tichhuak ve reng. Mihring chuan nylon siamna te, nitric acid siamna te, leitha siamna te, motor leh thlai lam thil hal atangin kan tichhuak thin.

Khawvel lum chuan eng nge a nghawng ang?

Khawvel lo lum zel ringawt hi amahin a ngaimawhawm ngawt lo a, a nghawng tur an ngaihtuahin khawvel mi thiamte an mangang a ni zawk. Harsatna lo thleng theite leh thleng mekte han sawi thuak thuak ila.

Kum 1800 tir lam atanga record-a a lan danin vur khawn a tui thin a ni tih a lang thei a; kum 1950 bawr chhoah khan a tui dan hi an teh tan thei tawh a ni. Vur tui zel avangin Arctic chu a te tial tial ang a, tuifinriat chim chin a sang sawt sawt dawn a ni tih hi an hmu tlang reng a, kum 1980-1999 chhung atanga tehin kum 2090-2100 chhungin tuifinriat chim chin chu 0.59 ft atangin 1.9 ft-in a sang sawt dawna ngaih a ni. Chumi ina a kaihhnawih harsatna lo thleng tur chi hrang hrang chu a nep lo hle. Khaw lum uchuak te, vawt uchuak (extreme weather) te a a awm thut thut ang a, a zing tulh tulh bawk ang. June 2003 khan khaw lum lutuk avangin India-ah mi 1700 zet an thi a, Europe-ah pawh August thla chhungin mi 35,000 an thi hial a ni. Tui lian leh khawkheng thlengin a nghawng chhuak dawn a ni. Thil buaithlak tak chu hetianga thil inthlak danglam a lo awm chuan kum 1000 ral hma chuan a dinhmun ngaiah a let leh tawh lo ang an ti a ni. Kan eizawnna leh lo neih dan, thlai thar dan zawng zawng a buai dawn a, kan insumdawn tawnna kalkawng pawh a dang ang an ti. Nipuiah luite tui a tlem sawt ang a, nungcha tam tak a mang phah bawk ang. Zirna pakhat chuan ramsa leh thlai chi 1,103 atangin zaa 18 atanga 35 (18% to 35%) chu kum 2050 hian a mang tawh ang a ti hial a ni. Natna theh darhtu leh natna a pung bawk ang tih a ni, chung zingah chuan malaria leh dengue fever an tih te a lang lian hle . Hmun thenkhatah chuan tui harsatna a lian viau ang a, a thenah chuan tui an ngah thung ang. Khaw lum zual ta hian mihring hriselna atana pawi tak nghawng a nei nual dawn a ni.

Kan environment bakah mihringte’n harsatna kan tawh mek thenkhat chu global warming vangah an puh tan der tawh a. Chung zingah chuan vur tawlh hmuh tur a awm nual tawh a, tuifinriat chim chin a sang sawt tawh a, ruahtui tlak dan a inthlak tawh a, khaw lum leh vawt uchuak lutuk kan hre fo ta bawk. WHO-in an zirnaah chuan global warming nghawng, malaria atanga ei tur tha tlakchham avangin kum tin mi 1,54,000 an thi ziah a, a bikin naupangin an tuar hle. Kum 2020-ah phei chuan a letin a pung ang an ti hial. Hengte hi tuna khawvel lumin a thlen ngei ni-ah an puh nghet tawh hle a ni.

Ei bar zawn dan leh khawtlang nun nasa takin a tibuai dawn a; loh theih loha awm hmun sawn ngai te, ral tlan te, hmun tha zawk zawnga pem chhuak te an awm teuh dawn a ni. Hmun tha lai deuhah chuan mipui an muk tulh tulh bawk ang. Bangladesh ramte khu a nghawng nasat pawl tura ngaih a ni a; Bangladesh atangin Mizoramah ram tha zawk zawngin an lo tlan lut ruih ruih lo ang tih a sawi theih loh a ni. Ram vawt (Temperate regions) te chuan an thatpui ve hlauh thei thung a, a chhan chu vawtin a hmeh hlum an tlem phah sawt dawn a ni. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)-in a sawi dan chuan khaw awm dan inthlak avanga ei bar zawnna leh sumpai deh chhuahna lama harsatna tawk thei tur te chu bank te, lo neihna lam te, inthiarvelna (transport) te a ni ang an ti a, ram thanglai, lo neih lama innghatte’n an tuar zual ang an ti a ni.

MIZORAM VE HI

Mizoram pumpui data hmuh tur a awm lo a, Aizawl bik thlir mai ila. Kum 1988 atanga kum 2008 chhung khan ni khat thil thua khaw lum ber ni chu kum 1999 khan a ni a, 36.7OC a thleng a ni. A vawh ber ni pawh kum 1991 khan a ni a, 5.4 OC a ni. Chutih laiin chawhruala kum tluana a lum ber kum chu kum 2000 kha a ni thung a, 32.4OC a ni.

Chawhrualin Aizawl khua hian lum lam a pan ve zel niin a hriat a, kum 10 bi dan, kum 1988-1997 chhung chawhrual atanga chhutin kum 1998-2007 chhung chawhrual chu 1.22OC in a lum belh a ni.  Hetih lai hian boruaka hnawng awm, humidity pawh a sang sawt hle a; kum 10 bi dan 1988-1997 leh 1998 – 2007 inkar chhutin 7. 52 %-in a sang tawh bawk a ni. Kan ramah ram ngaw a tlem tial tial a, chu chuan khua pawh a tihlum phah ve zel niin a hriat.

Engtin nge kan tih ang?

Khaw lo lum zel chu Mizoramah pawh kan tuar a, kan ram a lum ve telh telh a ni tih chu kan hmu ta a, khawvel hmun dang pawhin an buaipui mek Global warming hi engtia hmachhaw tur nge ni ang le? Khawvel-in a ngaihtuah dan kawng chi hnih a neihte chu Pawm mai tur a ni tih leh Inven tur a ni tih a ni a. Chumi hrulah chuan Mizorama kan la sawi tam loh lam thlurin hetiang hian ti ve ta ila:

I. Pawm mai tur a ni: Tih ngaihna avang a ni mai thei e. Khua hi a lo lum zel a nih chuan a nihna pawm a, chumi hmachhawn tura mahni insiam rem (adapt) mai tur a ni an ti ve tawp mai. Survival of the fittest tih ang deuh khan a tuar chhel chhel an dingchang dawn a ni mai a, mahni insiamrem thiam thiam an chan a tha dawn a ang hle. A ruh no no chhuakah tihna khawvel a ni mai dawn a ni.

II. Inven tur a ni: A invenna lam hi a pawimawh ber a, mi tinin kan tih theih tawk theuhah tha kan thawh a tul a; hengte hi rilruah vawngin tihhlawhtlin tum ila a tha ang e.

  1. Bulb pangngai chi aiah tube ang chi (cfl)-a thlak a tha:  CFLs hian bulb aiin energy zaa 60%-in a heh lo zawk. Hetia kan tih hian khaw tilumtu carbon dioxide hi kum khatah kg 150 vel a tlem phah thei.
  2. Air conditioner-a air filter tihfai fo tur:  Air filter tihfai hian carbon dioxide kg 170 vek a titlem thei.
  3. Energy heh lo chi khawl lei thin tur: Energy Star chhinchhiahna awm chauh lei tur a ni.
  4. Khawl thil reng reng standby-a dah loh tur: TV hi off loin stadby mode-ah darkar 21 lai dah ta ila, darkar thum chhung vel en bawk ta ila, electric tha a hman zawng zawng zaa 41 pakhat zet chu standby mode-a a awm chhunga a ei ral a ni.
  5. Tui lumna chi (water heater) te puan emaw lumna chhuak tur veng theia tuam chhawn a tha:  Hetia i tih mai hian carbon dioxide kg 500 lai chu kum khat chhungin i hum thei der mai.
  6. Hmun vawt laiiah fridge hun tur: Pindan chhungah pawh a lum laia fridge i hun chuan hmun vawta a awm aiin current a heh fe mai. Entirnan, pindan 30-35ºC-a lumah fridge hung ta la, hmun vawta hun aiin a letin current a heh a ni. Carbon dioxide kg 160 zetin a pun pelh bawk.
  7. Fridge-a vur khawn tihtui fo tur:  A thar lei pawhin amaha vur khawn titui thei chi (Defrost) emaw frost free lei tur a ni. A let hnih laiin current a heh lo zawk.
  8. Thlasikah kawngka hawn huau loh tur: Kawngka hawn rei lutuk hian in chhung a lo vawt hman a, a tilum leh turin energy tam tak sen a ngai thin. Carbon dioxide ton 1 laiin a pun phah thei.
  9. Thil chum laiin bel chhin tlat tur: Hetia kan tih hian a hmin hma a, energy tam tak hum theih a ni. Pressure cooker hman theih hram duhthusam. Zaa 70 zetin mei a hek lo zawk.
  10. Insuk khawl(washing machine) a khah hnuah chauh hman tur: Tlem te te suk nana insuk khawl hman chin hian current a heh hle. A khata suk daih khawl khawm a, vawi khata suk mai khan nasa takin electric bill a titlem a, corbon dioxide a tichhuak tlem em em bawk.
  11. Tui vawt hman tam: Tui tihlum nan hian mei leh current a hek hle. Loh theih loh a nih loh chuan tui vawt hman hram hram tur.
  12. Khawla thawmhnaw suk sawr ro ai chuan nia pho hram hram a tha:  Thla ruk chhung vel khawla sawr loin niah pho ziah la, carbon dioxide kg 350 vel i tichhuak tlem dawn tihna a ni.
  13. Hman nawn theih hman nawn tur: Ningnawi tlem zawnga hman nawn theih chi i hman nawn hram hram hian carbon dioxide kg 1200 zet kum khatah a chhuah tlem phah thei.
  14. Bawlhhawlh neih tlem tur:  Ningnawi ngah hian bawlhhlawh a titam a, a tawihralna kawngah carbon dioxide tam tak a chhuak thin. Thil reng reng a hman nawn theih chhung hman nawn hian nasa takin kawngro a su. Disposable tih ang chite hi hman tlem a tha. A siam chhuahna leh a thehthangnaah hian boruak bawlhhlawh tam tak a siam chhuak. YMA thleng leh no a tha ber.
  15. Thing phun uar: Thing pakhat hian a dam chhungin carbon dioxide ton 1 hip ral theia ngaih a ni.
  16. Motor hmang tlem rawh: Kea i kal theih hram hramnaah chuan kal hram la, kar khat chhungin motora I kalna thin, kea i kal takna belhkhawm chu mel 10 vel ni ta se, kum khat chhungin carbon dioxide kg 300 zet zawtin i tihchhuah tlem phah dawn a ni.
  17. Motor intawm a tha: Bus-a chuan te, a huhova motor inhmantawmte hi ram changkangah an uar thar. Mahnia motor lekchhuah theuh hian boruak a tibawlhhlawh nasa em em bik. Midang nen kar khatah motor-in ni hnih chauh pawh inchuan tawm ula kum khatah chuan carbon dioxide kg 760 vel zetin a tlem phah thei a ni.
  18. Motor chunga bungraw phurhna tangkai si lo vuah reng loh tur: Hman tangkai dawn loh chuan pawisa hekna mai a ni. A rihna leh a thli dawnna avang khan a tui zaa 10 zetin a hek phah thei.
  19. Motor enkawl uluk rawh: A hun tak leh dan ang thlapa motor enkawl hian petrol/diesel a hek lo a, boruak bawlhhlawh a chhuak tlem bawk.
  20. Tluangtlam taka motor khalh tur: Tlan chak thut, muan leh thut tih hian boruak bawlhhlawh a tichhuak hnem hle. Speed mar tha taka motor khalh tur a ni. A tui a hek loa boruak bawlhhlawh a chhuak tlem bawk.
  21. Motor ke puar tha tak chauh hman tur: Motor ke a thep chuan zaa 3 laiin motor a chak loh phah thei a, a tui a heh. A tui litre nga vel lo hum (save) thei ta ila, carbon dioxide chu kg 10 velin a tlem phah tihna a ni.
  22. Sikulah leh remchang dangah naupangte zirtir uar a tul: An naupan laia an pawm ngheh tlat hi damchhunga an nun hruaitu a ni thin
  23. Ram tihkan leh thil hal mai mai chin loh tur. Ram kang avang leh thil hal mai mai avangin boruak bawlhhlawh a chhuak nasa em em. Mizoram bikah chuan hei hi kan buaipui ber tur niin a lang. Hal ngai lo chia lo neih dan a nghahhlelhawm hle.

Khawvel lo lum zel hian mi a nghawng a, kan tuar ve mek a ni tih hria ila. Ramdang mite tihchhuah mai a ni lo a, khawvela awm zawng zawngte hian kan thawh ve theuh a ni tih hria ila, a siam that hnaah pawh kan tel ve ngei ngei a ngai tih hriat a tha hle.

Mahni theihna zawn theuha tha kan thawh hian a hlawk a, hna nasa takin a thawk thin. “Ram dangin an tichhuak teuh teuha keini lo insum ve vak a sawt lo,” tih chi a ni lo. Keini’n theihtawp kan lo chhuah hi khawvel pumpui tan a sawt hle a, chumi piah lamah keimahni kha kan nuam hlauh dawn a ni. Khawvel tilum lo tura tan kan lak nasat pawh leh kan nunkhua, kan ei bar zawnna leh kan ram a nuam dawn a, midangin hrehawm taka an tawrh lai pawhin nuam takin kan khawsa thei dawn a ni. |henawm lawk phai vairamte a lum em em lai khan boruak nuam tak, thlifim thaw heuh heuh kan dawng thin kha a ni a; khatiang dinhmuna kir leh tur khan theihtawp kan chhuah a tul zawk a ni. Mahni nawmna zawng kan ni a, kan dam khawchhuahna kan sual a ni tih i hre reng zawk ang u.
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